1996 collision(PART II & Last):
The crash was investigated by the Lahoti Commission, headed by then-Delhi High Court judge Ramesh Chandra Lahoti . Depositions were taken from the Air Traffic Controllers Guild and the two airlines. The flight data recorders were decoded by the respective airlines under supervision of air crash investigators in Moscow and London.The commission determined that the accident had been the fault of the Kazakh Il-76 commander, who (according to FDR evidence) had descended from the assigned altitude of 15,000 feet to 14,500 feet and subsequently 14,000 feet and even below that. The report ascribed the cause of this serious breach in operating procedure to the lack of English language skills on the part of the Kazakh aircraft pilots; they were relying entirely on their radio operator for communications with the ATC. Kazakh officials stated that the aircraft had descended while their pilots were fighting turbulence inside a bank of cumulus clouds. Also, a few seconds from impact, the Kazakh plane climbed slightly to 15,000 feet and the 2 planes collided. If they did not climb slightly, it is likely that they would have passed under the Saudi plane. The counsel for the ATC Guild denied the presence of turbulence, quoting meteorological reports, but did state that the collision occurred inside a cloud. This was substantiated by the affidavit of Capt. Place, who was the commander of a US military aircraft flying into New Delhi at the time of the crash. The members of his crew would file similar affidavits. The ultimate cause was held to be the failure of the Kazakh pilot to follow ATC instructions, whether due to cloud turbulence or due to communication problems.Indira Gandhi International Airport did not have secondary surveillance radar, which produces exact readings of aircraft altitudes; instead the airport had outdated primary radar, which produced approximate readings. In addition, the civilian airspace around New Delhi had one corridor for departures and arrivals. Most areas separate departures and arrivals into separate corridors. The airspace had one civilian corridor because much of the airspace was taken by the Indian Air Force. Due to the crash, the air-crash investigation report recommended changes to air-traffic procedures and infrastructure in New Delhi's air-space: Separation of in-bound and out-bound aircraft through the creation of 'air corridors', installation of a secondary air-traffic control radar for aircraft altitude data, mandatory collision avoidance equipment on commercial aircraft operating in Indian airspace and reduction of the airspace over New Delhi which was formerly under exclusive control of the Indian Air Force.The Civil Aviation Authorities in India made it mandatory for all aircraft flying in and out of India to be equipped with an ACAS(Airborne Collision Avoidance System). This was the first time in the world that ACAS was mandatory.
Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996_Charkhi_Dadri_mid-air_collision BY:Alireza Sadeghi
1960 Crisis:(Part I):
The 1960 U-2 incident occurred during the COLD WAR on May 1, 1960 when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. At first, the United States government denied the plane's purpose and mission, but was forced to admit its role as a covert surveillance aircraft when the Soviet government produced its remains (largely intact) and surviving pilot, Gary Powers. Coming just over two weeks before the scheduled opening of an East-West summit, the incident was a great embarrassment to the United States and prompted a marked deterioration in its relations with the Soviet Union.In July 1957, pakistani Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy was requested by U.S. President Dwight D.Eisenhower for his government's agreement for the U.S. to establish a secret U.S. intelligence facility in Pakistan and permission for the U-2 spyplane to fly from Pakistan. A facility established in Badaber, 10 miles (16 km) from Peshavar, was a cover for a major communications intercept operation run by the American National Security Agency (NSA). Badaber was an excellent choice because of its proximity to Soviet Central Asia. This enabled monitoring of missile test sites and other communications. U-2 "spy-in-the-sky" was allowed to use the Pakistan Air Force portion of the Peshawar airport to gain vital photo intelligence in an era before satellite observation.On April 9, 1960, the U-2 spyplane of the special Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) unit "10-10" crossed the South national boundary of Soviet Union in the area of Pamir Mountains and flew over four Soviet top secret military objects: the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the TU-95 air base, the SUrface To Air missile (SAM) test site of the Soviet Air Defence Forces near Saryshagan , and the Tyuratam missile range. The plane was detected by the Soviet Air Defense Forces at 4:47 when it flew away by more than 250 km from the Soviet national boundary and avoided several attempts of interception using MIG-19 and SU-9 during the flight. After U-2 left the Soviet air space at 11:32, it was clear that U.S. Central Intelligence Agency successfully performed an extraordinary intelligence operation. In spite of the negative Soviet diplomatic reaction the next flight of U-2 spyplane from the Badaber airbase was planned on May 1.On May 1, 1960, thirteen days before the scheduled opening of an East–West summit conference in paris, a U.S. Lockheed U-2 spy plane left the US base in Badaber on a mission to overfly the Soviet Union, photographing ICBM sites in and around Sverdlovsk and Plesetsk, then land at Bod in Norway. All units of the Soviet Air Defence Forces in theCentral Asia, Kazakhstan, Siberia, Ural and later in the U.S.S.R. European Region and Extereme North were on red alert, and the U-2 flight was expected. Soon after the plane was detected, Lieutenant General of the Air Force Yevgeniy Savitskiy ordered the air-unit commanders "to attack the violator by all alert flights located in the area of foreign plane's course, and to ram as necessary".....END OF PART I.......
Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U-2_Crisis_of_1960 BY:Alireza Sadeghi
1960 Crisis(Part II):
Due to the U-2's extreme operating altitude, Soviet attempts to intercept the plane using fighter aircraft failed. Moreover, the U-2's course was out of range of several of the nearest SAM sites, and one SAM site even failed to engage the violator since it was not on duty that day. According to the official version of the event (see below for alternative, plausible versions), the U-2 was eventually hit and brought down near Degtyrsk , Ural Region, by a salvo of fourteen SA-2 Guideline(S-75 Dvina) surface-to-air missiles. The plane's pilot, Gary Powers, successfully bailed out and parachuted to safety, although in doing so he violated his orders to destroy the aircraft were he to be shot down. Powers had been issued with a modified silver dollar which contained a lethal, shellfish-derived saxitoxin, although in the event he did not use it. In bailing out, he neglected to disconnect his oxygen hose and struggled with it until it broke, enabling him to separate from the aircraft. A subsequent missile salvo also hit the aircraft, further damaging it and would likely have killed Powers outright. He was captured soon afterward.The SAM command center was unaware that the plane was destroyed for more than 30 minutes. One of the Soviet fighters pursuing Powers was also destroyed in the missile salvo.A close study of Powers' account of the flight shows that one of the last targets he had overflown was the chelyabinsk-65 plutonium production facility. By photographing the facility, the heat rejection capacity of the reactors' cooling systems could have been estimated, thus allowing a calculation of the power output of the reactors. This then would have allowed the amount of plutonium being produced to be determined, thus allowing analysts to determine how many nuclear weapons the USSR was producing. Air defense missiles had been positioned around Chelyabinsk-65 because of its extreme sensitivity.Four days after Powers disappeared,NASA issued a very detailed press release noting that an aircraft had "gone missing" north of Turkey. The press release speculated that the pilot might have fallen unconscious while the autopilot was still engaged, even falsely claiming that "the pilot reported over the emergency frequency that he was experiencing oxygen difficulties." To bolster this, a U-2 plane was quickly painted in NASA colors and shown to the media.After learning of this, Soviet PremierNikita Khrushchev announced to the Supreme Soviet, and thus the world, that a "spyplane" had been shot down but intentionally made no reference to the pilot. As a result, the Eisenhower Administration, thinking the pilot had died in the crash, authorized the release of a cover story claiming that the plane was a "weather research aircraft" which had strayed into Soviet airspace after the pilot had radioed "difficulties with his oxygen equipment" while flying over Turkey. The Eisenhower White House acknowledged that this might be the same plane, but still proclaimed that "there was absolutely no deliberate attempt to violate Soviet airspace and never has been", and attempted to continue the facade by grounding all U-2 aircraft to check for "oxygen problems."On May 7, Khrushchev sprang his trap and announced:I must tell you a secret. When I made my first report I deliberately did not say that the pilot was alive and well… and now just look how many silly things [the Americans] have said.Not only was Powers still alive, but his plane was also essentially intact. The Soviets managed to recover the surveillance camera and even developed some of the photographs. The incident resulted in great humiliation for Eisenhower's administration, caught in a lie.Powers’ survival pack, including 7500 rubles and jewelry for women, was also recovered. Today a large part of the wreck as well as many items from the survival pack are on display at the Central Museum of Armed Forces in Moscow. A small piece of the plane was returned to the United States and is on display at the National Cryptologic Museum.........END OF PART II.......
Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U-2_Crisis_of_1960 BY:Alireza Sadeghi
1960 Crisis(Part III & Last):
The Paris Summit between president Dwight Eisenhower and Nikita Khrushchev collapsed, in large part because Eisenhower refused to accede to Khrushchev's demands that he apologize for the incident. Khrushchev left the talks on May 16.Powers pleaded guilty and was convicted of espionage on August 19 and sentenced to 3 years’ imprisonment and 7 years of hard labor. He served one and three-quarter years of the sentence before being exchanged for Rudolf Abel on February 10, 1962. Another result of the crisis was that the U.S. Corona spy satellite project was accelerated, while the CIA accelerated the development of the A-12 OXCART supersonic spyplane that first flew in 1962 and began developing the Lockheed D-21/M-21 unmanned drone.The incident severely compromised Pakistan security and worsened relations between the Soviet Union and pakistan. As an attempt to put up a bold front, Pakistani General Khalid Mahmud Arif while commenting on the incident stated that, "Pakistan felt deceived because the US had kept her in the dark about such clandestine spy operations launched from Pakistan’s territory."The communications wing at Badaber was formally closed down on January 7, 1970.For 36 years, the official story of the U-2 incident was that the spy plane had been shot down by one of a salvo of fourteen Soviet SA-2 rockets. This story originated with Oleg Penkovsky, a GRU agent who spied for MI6. In recent years, however, new information emerged which differed substantially from the official version.In 1996, Soviet pilot Captain Igor Mentyukov revealed that, at 65,000 feet (19,812 meters) altitude, under orders to ram the intruder, he had managed to catch the U-2 in the slipstream of his unarmed Sukhoi Su-9, causing the U-2 to flip over and break its wings. The salvo of rockets had indeed scored a hit, downing a pursuing MIG-19, not the U-2. Mentyukov said that if a rocket had hit the U-2, its pilot would not have lived.Though the normal Su-9 service ceiling was 55,000 feet (16,760 meters), Mentyukov's aircraft had been modified to achieve higher altitudes, having its weapons removed. With no weapons, the only attack option open to him was ramming. In 2000, Sergei Khrushchev wrote about the experience of his father, Nikita Khrushchev, in the incident. He described how Mentyukov attempted but missed intercepting the U-2, failing even to gain visual contact. Major Mikhail Voronov, in control of a battery of anti-aircraft missiles, fired three SA-2s at the radar contact but only one ignited. It quickly rose toward the target and exploded in the air behind the U-2 but near enough to violently shake the aircraft, tearing off its long wings. At a lower altitude, Powers climbed out of the falling fuselage and parachuted to the ground. Uncertainty about the initial shootdown success resulted in thirteen further anti-aircraft missiles being fired by neighboring batteries, but the later rockets only hit a pursuing MiG-19 piloted by Sr. Lt. Sergei Safronov, mortally wounding him. Sergei Safronov was posthumously awarded the Order Of Red Banner.Powers was also killed in a helicopter crash in 1977 and in 2000,his family was awarded some medals....THE END.